Methodology in Bioethics (in Polish)

Main Article Content

Barbara Chyrowicz

Abstract

The issues presented in this article bear on (1) the status of bioethics as an academic discipline and (2) research methods employed in it. With regard to the status of bioethics, I discuss problems related to the definition of bioethics, the ways of addressing bioethical issues (interdisciplinary discourse, applied ethics, an extension of medical ethics) and the choice of the discipline within which bioethics should be developed (law, theology, philosophy). The presented methods of bioethics have been divided into normative and non-normative. The non-normative methods are empirical, both qualitative and quantitative, whereas normative methods have been divided into three groups: methods based on principles (the application method and coherentism), casuistry, and alternative methods (virtue ethics, the ethics of care, communitarianism, and the narrative perspective). Since alternative ways of addressing bioethical issues are not always sufficiently developed from the methodological point of view, I have introduced, apart from the concept of method, the concept of research perspective (used, in the literature on the subject, interchangeably with the concept of research approach).

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Chyrowicz, Barbara. 2014. “Methodology in Bioethics (in Polish)”. Diametros, no. 42 (December):1-28. https://doi.org/10.13153/diam.42.2014.680.
Section
Special Topic - Cross sections of bioethics
Author Biography

Barbara Chyrowicz, The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin Institute of Theoretical Philosophy

Barbara Chyrowicz, professorThe John Paul II Catholic University of LublinInstitute of Theoretical PhilosophyAl. Racławickie 14Pl-20-950 Lubline-mail: barbarac@kul.lublin.pl
Share |

References

Alexander, Wynia [2008] – G.C. Alexander, M.K. Wynia, Survey Research in Bioethics, [w:] Empirical Methods for Bioethics: A Primer, L. Jacoby, L.A. Siminoff (red.), Elsevier, Oxford 2008, s. 139–160.
View in Google Scholar

Andre [2002] – J. Andre, Bioethics as practice, University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC 2002.
View in Google Scholar

Arras [1991] – J. Arras, Getting Down to Cases: The Reviwal of Casuistry in Bioethics, „Journal of Medicine and Philosophy” (16) 1991, s. 29–51.
View in Google Scholar

Arras [2007] – J. Arras, Nice Story, But So What? Narrative and Justification in Ethics, [w:] Bioethics. An Introduction to the History, Methods and Practice, N.S. Jecker, A.R. Jonsen, R.A. Pearlman (red.), Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Boston – Toronto
View in Google Scholar

– London – Singapore 2007, s. 206–225.
View in Google Scholar

Beauchamp, Childress [2001] – T.L. Beauchamp, J.F. Childress, Principles of Biomedical Ethics, Oxford University Press, New York – Oxford 2001.
View in Google Scholar

Beauchamp [2005] – T.L. Beauchamp, The Nature of Applied Ethics [w:] A Companion to Applied Ethics, R.G. Frey, Ch. Heath Wellman (red.), Oxford University Press, Oxford 2005, s. 1–16.
View in Google Scholar

Bert, Culver, Clouser [1997] – B. Gert, C.M. Culver, K.D. Clouser, A Bioethics: A Return to Fundamentals, Oxford University Press, New York 1997.
View in Google Scholar

Bloch, Chodoff, Green [1999] – Psychiatric ethics, S. Bloch, P. Chodoff, S.A. Green (red.), Oxford University Press, Oxford 1999.
View in Google Scholar

Boyle [2006] – J. Boyle, The Bioethics of Global Biomedicine: A Natural Law Reflection, [w:] Global Bioethics. The Collapse of Consensus, H.T. Engelhardt (red.), M&M Scrivener Press, Salem, MA 2006, s. 300–334.
View in Google Scholar

Brody [2009] – H. Brody, The Future of Bioethics, Oxford University Press, Oxford – New York 2009.
View in Google Scholar

Burley, Harris [2002] – A Companion to GenEthics, J. Burley, J. Harris (red.), Blackwell, Oxford 2002.
View in Google Scholar

Cahill [2010] – L.S. Cahill, Religion and Theology, [w:] Methods in Medical Ethics, J.Sugerman, D. Sulmasy (red.), Georgetown University Press, Washington, DC 2010, s. 73–90.
View in Google Scholar

Callahan [1973] – D. Callahan, Bioethics as a Discipline, „Hastings Center Studies” (1) 1973, s. 66-73.
View in Google Scholar

Callahan [2005] – D. Callahan, Bioethics, [w:] The Encyclopedia of Bioethics, vol. 1, S.G. Post (red.), MacMillan, New York 2005, s. 278–287.
View in Google Scholar

Campany [1994] – R.F. Campany, Taoist Bioethics in the Final Age: Therapy and Salvation in the Book of Divine Incantations for Penetrating the Abyss, [w:] Religious Methods and Resources in Bioethics, P.F. Camenisch (red.), Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dor- drecht – Boston – London 1994, s. 67–91.
View in Google Scholar

Castignone [2006] – S. Castignone, The Problem of Limits of Law in Bioethical Issues, [w:] Bio- ethics in Cultural Context. Reflections on Methods and Finitude, Ch. Rehmann-Sutter, M. Düwell, D. Mieth (red.), Springer, Dordrecht 2006, s. 81–90.
View in Google Scholar

Chambers [2010] – T. Chambers, Literature, [w:] Methods in Medical Ethics, J. Sugerman, D. Sulmasy (red.), Georgetown University Press, Washington DC 2010, s. 159–174.
View in Google Scholar

Charon [1993] – R. Charon, The narrative road to empathy, [w:] Empathy and the practice of medicine: Beyond pills and the scalpel, H. Spiro, M.G.M. Curnen, E.St. Peschel, D. James (red.), Yale University Press, New Haven CT 1993, s. 147–159.
View in Google Scholar

Charon [2007] – R. Charon, Narrative and Medicine, [w:] Bioethics: An Introductory to the His- tory, Methods, and Practice, N.S. Jecker, A.R. Jonsen, R.A. Pearlman (red.), Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Boston – Toronto – London – Singapore 2007, s. 202–205.
View in Google Scholar

Childress [2009] – J.F. Childress, Methods in Bioethics, [w:] The Oxford Handbook of Bioethics, B. Steinbock (red.), New York 2009, s. 15–45.
View in Google Scholar

Clouser [1978] – K.D. Clouser, Bioethics, [w:] Encyclopedia of Bioethics, vol. 1, W. Reich (red.), The Free Press, New York 1978, s. 116–125.
View in Google Scholar

Clouser, Gert [1990] – K.D. Clouser, B. Gert, A Critique of Principlism, „Journal of Medicine and Philosophy” (15) 1990, s. 219–236.
View in Google Scholar

Daniels [1985] – N. Daniels, Just Health Care, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1985.
View in Google Scholar

Davis [1994] – D.S. Davis, Methods in Jewish Bioethics, [w:] Religious Methods and Resources in Bioethics, P.F. Camenisch (red.), Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht – Bos- ton – London 1994, s. 109–126.
View in Google Scholar

Donagan [1977] – A. Donagan, A Theory of Morality, University of Chicago Press, Chicago 1977.
View in Google Scholar

Eckenwiler, Cohn [2007] – The Ethics of Bioethics. Mapping the Moral Landscape, L.A. Eckenwiler, F.G. Cohn (red.), The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore MD 2007.
View in Google Scholar

Engelhardt [2006] – H.T. Engelhardt, The Search for a Global Morality: Bioethics, The Culture Wars, and Moral Diversity, [w:] Global Bioethics. The Collapse of Consensus, H.T. Engelhardt (red.), M&M Scrivener Press, Salem, MA 2006, s. 18-49.
View in Google Scholar

Fan [2006] – R. Fan, Bioethics: Globalization, Communitization, or Localization?, [w:] Global Bioethics. The Collapse of Consensus, H.T. Engelhardt (red.), M&M Scrivener Press, Salem, MA 2006, s. 271–299.
View in Google Scholar

Fletcher [1954] – J.P. Fletcher, Morals and Medicine. The Moral Problems of the Patient’s Right to Know the Truth, Contraception, Artifical Insemination, Sterilization, and Euthanasia, Princeton University Press, Princeton 1954.
View in Google Scholar

Forman, Damschroder [2008] – J. Forman, L. Damschroder, Qualitative content analysis, [w:] Empirical Methods for Bioethics: A Primer, L. Jacoby, L.A. Siminoff (red.), Else- vier, Oxford 2008, s. 39–62.
View in Google Scholar

Frader [2008] – J. Frader, The Significance of Empirical Bioethics for Medical Practice: A Physician’s Perspective, [w:] Empirical Methods for Bioethics: A Primer, L. Jacoby, L.A. Siminoff (red.), Elsevier, Oxford 2008, s. 21–35.
View in Google Scholar

Foucault [2000] – M. Foucault, Historia seksualności, tłum. B. Banasiak, Czytelnik, Warszawa 2000.
View in Google Scholar

Green [1990] – R.M. Green, Method in Bioethics: A Troubled Assessment, „The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy” (15) 1990, s. 179–197.
View in Google Scholar

Grisez, Boyle [1979] – G. Grisez, J. Boyle, Life and Death with Liberty and Justice, University of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame, IN 1979.
View in Google Scholar

Grodin [1995] – M.A. Grodin, Introduction: The Philosophical and Historical Roots of Bioethics, [w:] Meta Medical Ethics. The Philosophical Foundations of Bioethics, M.A. Grodin (red.), Kluver Academic Publishers, Dordrecht – Boston – London 1995, s. 1–26.
View in Google Scholar

Hall, King [2010] – M.A. Hall, N.M.P. King, Legal methods, [w:] Methods in Medical Ethics, J.Sugerman, D. Sulmasy (red.), Georgetown University Press, Washington, DC 2010.
View in Google Scholar

Harris [1985] – J. Harris, The Value of Life. An Introduction to Medical Ethics, Routledge & Kegan Paul Books, London – New York 1985.
View in Google Scholar

Heyd [1992] – D. Heyd, Genethics. Moral Issues in the Creation of People, Oxford University Press, Berkeley – Los Angeles – Oxford 1992.
View in Google Scholar

Hunter [2007] – K.M. Hunter, Doctors’ Stories (Selection), [w:] Bioethics: An Introductory to the History, Methods, and Practice, N.S. Jecker, A.R. Jonsen, R.A. Pearlman (red.), Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Boston – Toronto – London – Singapore 2007, s. 189–201.
View in Google Scholar

Irving [b.r.] – Dianne N. Irving, What is „Bioethics”?, dostępne na: www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_whatisbioethics07.html.
View in Google Scholar

Jonsen, Toulmin [1989] – A.R. Jonsen, S. Toulmin, The Abuse of Casuistry. A History of Moral Reasoning, University of California Press, Berkeley – Los Angeles – London 1989.
View in Google Scholar

Jonsen, Siegler, Winslade [1992] – A. Jonsen, M. Siegler, W. Winslade, Clinical Ethics: A Practical Approach to Ethical Decisions in Clinical Medicine, McGraw Hill Inc., New York 1992.
View in Google Scholar

Jonsen [1998] – A.R. Jonsen, The Birth of Bioethics, Oxford University Press, New York – Oxford 1998.
View in Google Scholar

Kelsay [1994] – J. Kelsay, Islam and Medical Ethics, [w:] Religious Methods and Resources in Bioethics, P.F. Camenisch (red.), Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht – Boston – London 1994, s. 93–107.
View in Google Scholar

Kostro [1978] – L. Kostro, Bioetyka, [w:] Encyklopedia Katolicka, t. 2, F. Gryglewicz, R. Łukaszyk, Z. Sułowski (red.), Wydawnictwo TN KUL, Lublin 1978, kol. 568–570.
View in Google Scholar

Kuczewski [2007] - M.G. Kuczewski, Fragmentation and Consensus: Communitarian and Casuist Bioethics, Georgetown University Press, Washington, DC 2007.
View in Google Scholar

Kuhse, Singer [1998] – H. Kuhse, P. Singer, What is bioethics? A historical introduction, [w:] A Companion to Bioethics, H. Kuhse, P. Singer (red.), Blackwell Publishers, Oxford 1998, s. 3–11.
View in Google Scholar

LaFollette [2000] – The Blackwell Guide to Ethical Theory, H. LaFollette (red.), Blackwell Pub- lishers, Oxford 2000.
View in Google Scholar

Levy [2009] – N. Levy, Neuroethics. Challenges for the 21st Century, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2009.
View in Google Scholar

May [2008] – W.E. May, Catholic Bioethics and the Gift of Human Life, Our Sunday Visitor Publishing Division, Huntington, IN 2008.
View in Google Scholar

MacLean [1993] – A. MacLean, The Elimination of Morality. Reflections on Utilitarianism and Bioethics, Routledge, London – New York 1993.
View in Google Scholar

Marshall, Koenig [2010] – P.A. Marshall, B.A. Koenig, Etnographic Methods, [w:] Methods in Medical Ethics, J. Sugerman, D. Sulmasy (red.), Georgetown University Press, Washington, DC 2010, s. 215–232.
View in Google Scholar

McCormick [1978] – R. McCormick, The Quality of Life, „Hastings Center Report” (8/1) 1978, s. 30–36.
View in Google Scholar

Meilaender [1995] – G.C. Meilaender, Body, Soul, and Bioethics, University of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame, IN – London 1995.
View in Google Scholar

Mendiola [1994] – M.M. Mendiola, Bioethics and Impartial Rationalty: The Search for Neutrali- ty, [w:] Religious Methods and Resources in Bioethics, P.F. Camenisch (red.), Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht – Boston – London 1994, s. 147–164.
View in Google Scholar

Mieth [2002] – D. Mieth, Was wollen wir können? Ethik im Zeitalter der Biotechnik, Herder, Freiburg – Basel – Wien 2002.
View in Google Scholar

Pearlman, Starks [2010] – R.A. Pearlman, H.E. Starks, Quantitative Surveys, [w:] Methods in Medical Ethics, J. Sugerman, D. Sulmasy (red.), Georgetown University Press, Washington, DC 2010, s. 233–250.
View in Google Scholar

Pellegrino [2008] – E.D. Pellegrino, Bioethics at Century’s Turn. Can Normative Ethics Be Retrieved?, [w:] The Philosophy of Medicine Reborn. A Pellegrino Reader, H.T. Engelhardt, F. Jotterand (red.), University of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame, IN 2008, s. 375–400.
View in Google Scholar

Pellegrino [2008] – E.D. Pellegrino, Toward a Virtue-Based Normative Ethics for Health Professions, [w:] The Philosophy of Medicine Reborn. A Pellegrino Reader, H.T. Engelhardt, F. Jotterand (red.), University Of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame. IN 2008, s. 255-280.
View in Google Scholar

Pellegrino, Thomasma [1981] – E.D. Pellegrino, D.C. Thomasma, A Philosophical Basis of Medical Practice, Oxford University Press, New York 1981.
View in Google Scholar

Potter [1971] – Van R. Potter, Bioethics: Bridge to the Future, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs NJ, 1971.
View in Google Scholar

Potter [1998] – V.R. Potter, Global Bioethics: Building on the Leopold Legacy, Michigan State University Press, East Lansing, MI 1998.
View in Google Scholar

Ramsey [1977] – P. Ramsey, Pacjent jest osobą, tłum. S. Łypacewicz, Instytut Wydawniczy PAX, Warszawa 1977.
View in Google Scholar

Reich [1978] – W. Reich, Introduction, [w:] Encyclopedia of Bioethics, vol. 1, W. Reich (red.), The Free Press, New York 1978. s. XII–XXX.
View in Google Scholar

Reich [1993] – W. Reich, How Bioethics Got Its Name, „Hastings Center Report” (23/6) 1993, s. S6–S7 (Special Supplement).
View in Google Scholar

Sgreccia [2012] – E. Sgreccia, Personalist Bioethics. Foundations and Applications, tłum. J.A. Di Camillo, M.J. Miller, The National Catholic Bioethics Center, Philadelphia 2012.
View in Google Scholar

Sherwin [2007] – S. Sherwin, Feminist and Medical Ethics: Two Different Approaches to Contextual Ethics, [w:] Bioethics: An Introduction to the History, Methods, and Practice, N.S. Jecker, A.R. Jonsen, R.A. Pearlman (red.), Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Boston – Toronto – London – Singapore 2007, s. 183–188.
View in Google Scholar

Siminoff [2004] – L.A. Siminoff, Empirical Methods in Bioethics, [w:] Encyclopedia of Bioethics, vol. 2, S.G. Post (red.), Macmillan, New York 2004, s. 746–748.
View in Google Scholar

Singer [1994] – P. Singer, Practical Ethics, Cambridge University Press, New York 1994.
View in Google Scholar

Stelmach [2010] – J. Stelmach, Przyczyny sporów bioetycznych, [w:] B. Brożek, M. Soniewicka, W. Załuski, Paradoksy bioetyki prawniczej, Oficyna Wolters Kluwer Business, Warszawa 2010, s. 13–24.
View in Google Scholar

Sugerman, Faden, Weinstein [2001] – J. Sugerman, R. Faden, J. Weinstein, A Decade of Empirical Research in Medical Ethics, [w:] Methods in Medical Ethics, J. Sugerman, D.P. Sulmasy (red.), Georgetown University Press, Washington, DC 2001, s. 19–28.
View in Google Scholar

Sugerman, Faden, Weinstein [2010] – J. Sugerman, R. Faden, A. Boyce, A Quarter Century of Empirical Research in Biomedical Ethics, [w:] Methods in Medical Ethics, J. Sugerman, D. Sulmasy (red.), Georgetown University Press, Washington, DC 2010, s. 21–34.
View in Google Scholar

Szawarski [2005] – Z. Szawarski, Mądrość i sztuka leczenia, Słowo – Obraz – Terytoria, Gdańsk 2005.
View in Google Scholar

Szumowski [2005] – W. Szumowski, Filozofia medycyny, Wydawnictwo Marek Derewiecki, Kęty 2005.
View in Google Scholar

Ślipko [1994] – T. Ślipko, Granice życia. Dylematy współczesnej bioetyki, Wydawnictwo WAM, Kraków 1994.
View in Google Scholar

Taniguchi [1994] – S. Taniguchi, Methodology of Buddhist Biomedical Ethics, [w:] Religious Methods and Resources in Bioethics, P.F. Camenisch (red.), Kluwer Academic Pub- lishers, Dordrecht – Boston – London 1994, s. 31–65.
View in Google Scholar

Taylor, Chandros, Chandros Hull, Kass [2010] – H.A. Taylor, S. Chandros Hull, N.E. Kass, Qualitative Methods, [w:] Methods in Medical Ethics, J. Sugerman, D. Sulmasy (red.), Georgetown University Press, Washington, DC 2010, s. 193–214.
View in Google Scholar

Tollefsen, Boyle [2004] – Ch. Tollefsen, J. Boyle, Roman Catholic Bioethics, [w:] The Annals of Bioethics. Religious Perspectives in Bioethics, J.F. Peppin (red.), Taylor & Francis, London – New York 2004, s. 1–20.
View in Google Scholar

Thomasma [1980] – D. Thomasma, A philosophy of a clinically based medical ethics, „Journal of Medical Ethics” (6/3) 1980, s. 190–196.
View in Google Scholar

Toulmin [1981] – S. Toulmin, The Tyranny of Principles, „Hastings Center Report” (11/6) 1981, s. 31–38.
View in Google Scholar

Vaughn [2010] – L. Vaughn, Bioethics. Principles, Issues, and Cases, Oxford University Press, Oxford – New York 2010.
View in Google Scholar

Veatch [1981] – P. Veatch, A Theory of Medical Ethics, Basic Books, New York 1981.
View in Google Scholar

Verhey [1996] – Religion and Medical Ethics: Looking Back, Looking Forward, A. Verhey (red.), William Eerdmans Publishing Co., Grand Rapids, MI 1996.
View in Google Scholar

Warnock [1998] – M. Warnock, Bioetyka, tłum. J. Łoziński, [w:] Encyklopedia Filozofii, t. 1, T. Honderich (red.), Zysk i S-ka, Poznań 1998, s. 74.
View in Google Scholar

Wildes [2000] – K.W. Wildes, Moral Acquaintances. Methodology in Bioethics, University of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame, IN 2000.
View in Google Scholar

Winkler [1996] – E. Winkler, Moral Philosophy and Bioethics: Contextualism versus the Paradigm Theory, [w:] Philosophical Perspectives on Bioethics, L.W. Sumner, J. Boyle (red.), University of Toronto Press, Toronto – Buffalo – London 1996, s. 50–78.
View in Google Scholar

Wulff, Pedersen, Rosenberg [1993] – H.R. Wulff, S.A. Pedersen, R. Rosenberg, Filozofia medycyny, tłum. Z. Szawarski, Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warszawa 1993.
View in Google Scholar

Young [1994] – K.K. Young, Hindu Bioethics, [w:] Religious Methods and Resources in Bioethics, P.F. Camenisch (red.), Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht – Boston – London 1994, s. 3–30.
View in Google Scholar