Substantive logics of fiction. Part III: E. N. Zalta’s theory of abstract objects (in Polish)

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Jacek Gurczyński


This paper presents E. N. Zalta’s theory of abstract objects. It discusses the application of the theory of abstract objects to the analysis of fiction. From a formal point of view the system is an intensional second-order logic of relations based on the standard axiomatization of the propositional calculus. Zalta distinguishes exemplification and encoding of properties. Real objects exemplify properties, while abstract objects both encode and exemplify properties. This distinction makes it possible to apprehend the double structure of predication of fictional objects. It also points out some unwanted consequences of the theory, which are bound to the fact that fictional objects are conceived as abstract objects. Another defect of the system is its weak deductive power – the conclusions do not go beyond the system’s axiomatization.


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Gurczyński, Jacek. 2013. “Substantive Logics of Fiction. Part III: E. N. Zalta’s Theory of Abstract Objects (in Polish)”. Diametros, no. 35 (March):21-48.
Author Biography

Jacek Gurczyński, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University

Jacek Gurczyński, PhD Maria Curie-Sklodowska University Department of Philosophy Plac Marii Curie Skłodowskiej 4 Pl-20-031 Lublin e-mail:
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