The Biomedical Model in Psychopathology. A Critical Historical Outline, Contemporary Context and Ethical Problems

Main Article Content

Radosław Stupak
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7318-546X

Abstract

The article presents a critical historical outline and description of the biomedical model of psychopathology, focusing on the second half of the 20th century. It also identifies and discusses the key problems connected with its dominance in the contemporary clinical and research practice. These problems concern, among other things, the validity and reliability of psychiatric diagnoses, research methodology, treatment effectiveness, or the influence of pharmaceutical companies on research and therapeutic activity. The serious conceptual problems of the whole model call into question the foundations and knowledge base of contemporary psychiatry. There are also justified doubts regarding antipsychotic and antidepressant medications nowadays – despite their increasingly wide use, the number of chronically ill people keeps rising. This situation leads to serious ethical problems and warrants questions regarding the over-medicalisation of issues commonly associated with mental health. A reform of research and clinical practice is urgent.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Stupak, Radosław. 2020. “The Biomedical Model in Psychopathology. A Critical Historical Outline, Contemporary Context and Ethical Problems”. Diametros 17 (66):34-51. https://doi.org/10.33392/diam.1260.
Section
Articles
Author Biography

Radosław Stupak, Institute of Philosophy, Jagiellonian University in Kraków

Institute of Philosophy

Grodzka 52
31-044 Kraków

e-mail: radek.stupak@doctoral.uj.edu.pl

 

Share |

References

Abbasi J. (2017), Ketamine Minus the Trip: New Hope for Treatment-Resistant Depression, „JAMA” 318 (20): 1964–1966.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2017.12975

Ahn R., Woodbridge A., Abraham A. et al. (2017), Financial Ties of Principal Investigators and Randomized Controlled Trial Outcomes: Cross Sectional Study, „BMJ” 356: i6770.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.i6770

American Diabetes Association (2004), Consensus Development Conference on Antipsychotic Drugs and Obesity and Diabetes, „Diabetes Care” 27 (2): 596–601.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.2337/diacare.27.2.596


View in Google Scholar

American Psychiatric Association (1994), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th ed., „APA”, Washington, DC.
View in Google Scholar

Amsterdam J.D., McHenry L.B., Jureidini J.N. (2017), Zjawisko korupcji w badaniach psychia- trycznych, „Psychiatria Polska” 51 (6): 993–1008.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12740/PP/80136

Bentall R.P. (2003), Madness Explained: Psychosis and Human Nature, Penguin, London. Bernstein F. (1970), A Ten-Year History of the Early Clinical Drug Evaluation Unit (ECDEU) Program, „Psychopharmacol Bulletin” 6: 1–21.
View in Google Scholar

Bielefeldt A.Ø., Danborg P.B., Gøtzsche P.C. (2016), Precursors to Suicidality and Violence on Antidepressants: Systematic Review of Trials in Adult Healthy Volunteers, „JRSM” 109 (10): 381–392.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0141076816666805

Blashfield R.K., Keeley J.W., Flanagan E.H. et al. (2014), The Cycle of Classification: DSM-I Through DSM-5, „Annual Review of Clinical Psychology” 10 (1): 25–51.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032813-153639

Bond C.H. (1914), The Position of Psychiatry and the Role of the General Hospitals in Its Improvement, „The Lancet” 184 (4755): 935–940.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(00)46715-2

Bracken P., Thomas P. (2001), Postpsychiatry: A New Direction for Mental Health, „BMJ” 322 (7288): 724–727.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.322.7288.724

Calton T., Ferriter M., Huband N. et al. (2008), A Systematic Review of the Soteria Paradigm for the Treatment of People Diagnosed with Schizophrenia, „Schizophrenia Bulletin” 34 (1): 181–192.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbm047

Cosgrove L., Karter J.M. (2018), The Poison in the Cure: Neoliberalism and Contemporary Movements in Mental Health, „Theory & Psychology” 28 (5): 669–683.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0959354318796307

Cowen P.J., Browning M. (2015), What Has Serotonin to Do with Depression?, „World Psychiatry” 14 (2): 158–160.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/wps.20229

Davies J. (2017), How Voting and Consensus Created the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III), „Anthropology & Medicine” 24 (1): 32–46.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13648470.2016.1226684

Davies J., Read J. (2018), A Systematic Review into the Incidence, Severity and Duration of Anti- depressant Withdrawal Effects: Are Guidelines Evidence-Based?, „Addictive Behaviors” 97 (Oct 2019): 111–121.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.08.027

de Barbaro B. (2014), Dylemat psychiatrii: „zły czy szalony”, „Psychiatra” 5 (7): 14–15.
View in Google Scholar

Deacon B.J. (2013), The Biomedical Model of Mental Disorder: A Critical Analysis of Its Validity, Utility, and Effects on Psychotherapy Research, „Clinical Psychology Review” 33: 846–861.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2012.09.007

Dell’Osso L., Pini S. (2012), What Did We Learn from Research on Comorbidity in Psychiatry? Advantages and Limitations in the Forthcoming DSM-V Era, „Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health” 8: 180–184.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.2174/1745017901208010180

Dub L.A., Lurie L.A. (1939), Use of Benzedrine in the Depressed Phase of the Psychotic State, „Ohio State Medical Journal” 35: 39–45.
View in Google Scholar

Dyga K., Stupak R. (2014), Obraz rehabilitacji psychiatrycznej w Polsce. Opis, porównania i ocena, [w:] Przepis na rehabilitację. Metodologie oraz metody w badaniach i transdyscyplinarnej praktyce rehabilitacyjnej, W. Otrębski, G. Wiącek (red.), Wydawnictwo KUL, Lublin.
View in Google Scholar

Eichenwald K., Kolata G. (1999), A Doctor’s Drug Studies Turn into Fraud, URL = https://partners.nytimes.com/library/national/science/health/051799drug-trials-industry.html [dostęp 1.08.2016].
View in Google Scholar

Ellenberger H.F. (1970), The Discovery of the Unconscious: The History and Evolution of Dynamic Psychiatry, Basic Books, New York, NY.
View in Google Scholar

Fava G.A., Offidani E. (2011), The Mechanisms of Tolerance in Antidepressant Action, „Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry” 35 (7): 1593–1602.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2010.07.026

U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2019), FDA Approves New Nasal Spray Medication for Treatment-Resistant Depression; Available Only at a Certified Doctor’s Office or Clinic, URL = https://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ ucm632761.htm [dostęp 23.03.2019].
View in Google Scholar

Frances A.J. (2012), DSM-5 Field Trials Discredit APA, URL = https://www.psychologyto-day.com/blog/dsm5-in-distress/201210/dsm-5-field-trials-discredit-apa [dostęp
View in Google Scholar

02.2017].
View in Google Scholar

Freemantle N., Anderson I.M., Young P. (2000), Predictive Value of Pharmacological Activity for the Relative Efficacy of Antidepressant Drugs: Meta-Regression Analysis, „The British Journal of Psychiatry” 177: 292–302.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.177.4.292

Gøtzsche P. (2015), Deadly Psychiatry and Organised Denial, People’s Press, Copenhagen.
View in Google Scholar

Harrow M., Jobe T.H., Faull R.N. (2012), Do All Schizophrenia Patients Need Antipsychotic Treatment Continuously Throughout Their Life Time? A 20-Year Longitudinal Study, „Psychological Medicine” 42 (10): 2145–2155.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291712000220

Harrow M., Jobe T.H., Faull R.N. et al. (2017), A 20-Year Multi-Followup Longitudinal Study Assessing Whether Antipsychotic Medications Contribute to Work Functioning in Schizophrenia, „Psychiatry Research” 256: 267–274.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2017.06.069

Healy D. (2002), The Creation of Psychopharmacology, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4159/9780674038455

Hoffer A., Osmond H., Smythies J. (1954), Schizophrenia: A New Approach. II. Results of a Year’s Research, „Journal of Mental Science” 100 (418): 29–45.
View in Google Scholar

Ho B.-C., Andreasen N.C., Ziebell S. et al. (2011), Long-Term Antipsychotic Treatment and Brain Volumes: A Longitudinal Study of First-Episode Schizophrenia, „Archives of General Psychiatry” 68 (2): 128–137.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2010.199

Hollister L. (1998), From Hypertension to Psychopharmacology: A Serendipitous Career, [w:] The
View in Google Scholar

Psychopharmacologists, t. 2, D. Healy (red.), Chapman & Hall, London: 215–236.
View in Google Scholar

Huston P., Moher D. (1996), Redundancy, Disaggregation, and the Integrity of Medical Research, „Lancet” 347: 1024–1026.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(96)90153-1

Insel T.R. (2006), Mental Illness and Brain Disease: Dispelling Myths and Promoting Recovery Through Awareness and Treatment. Subcommittee on Health of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, United States House of Representatives, URL = https://www.gpo.gov/fd-sys/pkg/CHRG-109hhrg30414/html/CHRG-109hhrg30414.htm [dostęp 10.06.2018].
View in Google Scholar

Insel T.R. (2006b), NIMH’s Dr. Thomas Insel: Group Advocacy, More Data, Will Improve Eating
View in Google Scholar

Disorders Research Funding, „Eating Disorders Review” 18: 5–6. Insel T.R. (2010), Faulty circuits, „Scientific American” 302: 44–51.
View in Google Scholar

Insel T.R. (2013), Transforming Diagnosis, URL = https://www.nimh.nih.gov/about/directors/thomasinsel/blog/2013/transforming-diagnosis.shtml [dostęp 26.01.2017].
View in Google Scholar

Jääskeläinen E., Juola P., Hirvonen N. et al. (2013), A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Recovery in Schizophrenia, „Schizophrenia Bulletin” 39 (6): 1296–1306.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbs130

Jansen K.L.R. (2004), Ketamine: Dreams and Realities, Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies, Sarasota, FL.
View in Google Scholar

Kaczmarek E. (2018), How to Distinguish Medicalization from Over-Medicalization?, „Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy” 22 (1): 119–128
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11019-018-9850-1

Kamenov K., Twomey C., Cabello M. et al. (2017), The Efficacy of Psychotherapy, Pharmacotherapy and Their Combination on Functioning and Quality of Life in Depression: A Meta-Analysis, „Psychological Medicine” 47 (3): 414–425.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291716002774

Kamens S.R., Robbins B.D., Flanagan E.H. (2017), Introduction to the Special Issues on Diagnostic Alternatives, „Journal of Humanistic Psychology” 57 (6): 567–572.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0022167817701253

Kinderman P. (2014), A Prescription for Psychiatry, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, Hampshire. Kirkpatrick B., Buchanan R.W., Ross D.E. et al. (2001), A Separate Disease Within the Syndrome of Schizophrenia, „Archives of General Psychiatry” 58 (2): 165–171.
View in Google Scholar

Kirsch I., Deacon B.J., Huedo-Medina T.B. et al. (2008), Initial Severity and Antidepressant Benefits: A Meta-Analysis of Data Submitted to the Food and Drug Administration, „PLoS Med” 5 (2): e45.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0050045

Kirsch I., Huedo-Medina T.B., Pigott H.E. et al. (2018), Do Outcomes of Clinical Trials Resemble Those “Real World” Patients? A Reanalysis of the STAR*D Antidepressant Data Set, „Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice” 5 (4): 339–345.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/cns0000164

Krupitsky E.M., Grinenko A.Y. (1997), Ketamine Psychedelic Therapy (KPT): A Review of the Results of Ten Years of Research, „Journal of Psychoactive Drugs” 29 (2): 165–183.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02791072.1997.10400185

Leo J. (2018), Memo to the Newest Generation of Gene Hunters: Read Jay Joseph, „Psychosis” 10 (1): 58–61.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/17522439.2017.1422009

Longden E. (2013), The Voices in My Head. TED Talk, URL = https://www.ted.com/talks/eleanor_longden_the_voices_in_my_head?language=en [dostęp 11.08.2016].
View in Google Scholar

Ludwig A.M. (1975), The Psychiatrist as Physician, „JAMA” 234 (6): 603–604.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.234.6.603

Mithoefer M.C., Wagner M.T., Mithoefer A.T. et al. (2011), The Safety and Efficacy of {+/-}3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine-Assisted Psychotherapy in Subjects with Chronic, Treatment-Resistant Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: The First Randomized Controlled Pilot Study, „Journal of Psychopharmacology” 25 (4): 439–452.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881110378371

Mithoefer M.C., Mithoefer A.T., Feduccia A.A. et al. (2018), 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-Assisted Psychotherapy for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Military Veterans, Firefighters, and Police Officers: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Dose-Response, Phase 2 Clinical Trial, „Lancet Psychiatry” 5 (6): 486–497.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(18)30135-4

Moncrieff J. (2008), The Myth of the Chemical Cure, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, Hampshire.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230589445

Moncrieff J. (2008b), Neoliberalism and Biopsychiatry: A Marriage of Convenience, [w:] Liberatory Psychiatry: Philosophy, Politics, and Mental Health, C.I. Cohen, S. Timimi (red.), Cambridge University Press, New York, NY.
View in Google Scholar

Moncrieff J., Kirsch I. (2015), Empirically Derived Criteria Cast Doubt on the Clinical Significance of Antidepressant-Placebo Differences, „Contemporary Clinical Trials” 43: 60–62.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2015.05.005

Moncrieff J. (2016), Misrepresenting Harms in Antidepressant Trials, „BMJ” 352: i217. Moncrieff J. (2016b), New Research into Antipsychotic Discontinuation and Reduction: The RADAR programme, URL = https://joannamoncrieff.com/2016/03/02/new-research-into-antipsychotic-discontinuation-and-reduction-the-radar-programme/ [dostęp 10.06.2018].
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.i217

Mulder R.T., Frampton C.M. (2013), Outcome of Mood Disorders Before Psychopharmacology: A Systematic Review, „Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry” 48 (3): 224–236.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0004867413514490

Oronowicz-Jaśkowiak W., Bąbel P. (2019), Twenty Years After ‘Listening to Prozac but Hearing Placebo’. Do We Hear Placebo Even Louder?, „Health Psychology Report” 7 (1): 1–8. Pużyński S. (2014), Czy kryzys, „Psychiatra” 5 (7): 6–8.
View in Google Scholar

Read J., Bentall R.P., Fosse R. (2009), Time to Abandon the Bio-Bio-Bio Model of Psychosis: Exploring the Epigenetic and Psychological Mechanisms by Which Adverse Life Events Lead to Psychotic Symptoms, „Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences” 18 (4): 299–310.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1121189X00000257

Rees W.L., King G.N. (1952), Cortisone in the Treatment of Schizophrenia, „The Journal of Mental Science” 98: 408–413.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.98.412.401

Richardson T., Elliott P., Roberts R. et al. (2017), A Longitudinal Study of Financial Difficulties and Mental Health in a National Sample of British Undergraduate Students, „Community Mental Health Journal” 53 (3): 344–352.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10597-016-0052-0

Rogers A., Pilgrim D. (2001), Mental Health Policy in Britain, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, Hampshire.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-137-03963-7

Rogers D. (2017), Star Neuroscientist Tom Insel Leaves the Google-Spawned Verily for... A Startup?, URL = https://www.wired.com/2017/05/star-neuroscientist-tom-insel-leaves-google-spawned-verily-startup/ [dostęp 10.06.2018].
View in Google Scholar

Rzewuska M. (2007), Zaburzenia metaboliczne związane ze stosowaniem leków przeciwpsychotycznych u chorych na schizofrenię, „Psychiatria Polska” 41 (4): 457–472.
View in Google Scholar

Sarchet P. (2011), Harvard Scientists Disciplined for Not Declaring Ties to Drug Companies, URL = http://blogs.nature.com/news/2011/07/harvard_scientists_disciplined.html [dostęp 30.10.2018].
View in Google Scholar

Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (2014), Biological Insights from 108 Schizophrenia-Associated Genetic Loci, „Nature” 511 (7510): 421–427.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13595

Scull A. (1994), Somatic Treatments and the Historiography of Psychiatry, „Historiography of Psychiatry” 5: 1–12.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0957154X9400501701

Seikkula J., Alakare B., Aaltonen J. et al. (2006), 5 Years Experiences of First-Episode Non-Affective Psychosis in Open Dialogue Approach: Treatment Principles, Follow-Up Outcomes and Two Case Analyses, „Psychotherapy Research” 16: 214–228.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10503300500268490

Sharma T., Guski L.S., Freund N. et al. (2016), Suicidality and Aggression During Antidepressant Treatment: Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses Based on Clinical Study Reports, „BMJ” 352: i65.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.i65

Shorter E. (2005), Historia psychiatrii. Od zakładu dla obłąkanych po erę Prozacu, tłum. P. Turski, Wydawnictwa Szkolne i Pedagogiczne, Warszawa.
View in Google Scholar

Smith R. (2005), Medical Journals Are an Extension of the Marketing Arm of Pharmaceutical Companies, „PLoS Med” 2 (5): e138.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0020138

Spielmans G.I., Parry P.I. (2010), From Evidence-Based Medicine to Marketing-Based Medicine: Evidence from Internal Industry Documents, „Journal of Bioethical Inquiry” 7 (1): 13–29.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11673-010-9208-8

Stupak R., Dobroczyński B. (2019), Projekt Soteria: zwiastun „trzeciej drogi” w psychiatrii?, „Psychiatria Polska” 53 (6): 1351–1364.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12740/PP/OnlineFirst/91731

Stupak R., Dyga K. (2018), Postpsychiatry and Postmodern Psychotherapy: Theoretical and Ethical Issues in Mental Health Care in a Polish Context, „Theory & Psychology” 28 (6): 780–799.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0959354318802973

Thacker P.D. (2018), Time to Act on Industry Influence Over Medicine and Lay Zombie Arguments to Rest, URL = https://blogs.bmj.com/bmj/2018/10/05/paul-d-thacker-time-to-act-on-industry-influence-over-medicine-and-lay-zombie-arguments-to-rest/ [dostęp 30.10.2018].
View in Google Scholar

The Brainstorm Consortium (2018), Analysis of Shared Heritability in Common Disorders of the Brain, „Science” 360 (6395): eaap8757.
View in Google Scholar

Varese F., Smeets F., Drukker M. et al. (2012), Childhood Adversities Increase the Risk of Psychosis: A Meta-Analysis of Patient-Control, Prospective and Cross-Sectional Cohort Studies, „Schizophrenia Bulletin” 38 (4): 661–671.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbs050

Veling W., Susser E., van Os J. et al. (2008), Ethnic Density of Neighborhoods and Incidence of Psychotic Disorders Among Immigrants, „The American Journal of Psychiatry” 165 (1): 66–73.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2007.07030423

Waszkiewicz A.A., Nizio A.M. (2014), Rola psychologa klinicznego w szpitalu psychiatrycznym, „Psychiatria i Psychoterapia” 10 (1): 3–10.
View in Google Scholar

Whitaker R. (2002), Mad in America: Bad Science, Bad Medicine, and the Enduring Mistreatment of the Mentally Ill, Perseus Publishing, Cambridge, MA.
View in Google Scholar

Whitaker R. (2016), The Case Against Antipsychotics: A Review of Their Long-Term Effects, URL = http://www.madinamerica.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/The-CaseA-gainst-Antipsychotics.pdf [dostęp 10.08.2016].
View in Google Scholar

Whiteford H.A., Harris M.G., McKeon G. et al. (2013), Estimating Remission from Untreated Major Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, „ Psychological Medicine” 43 (8): 1569–1585.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291712001717

Wicks S., Hjern A., Dalman C. (2010), Social Risk or Genetic Liability for Psychosis? A Study of Children Born in Sweden and Reared by Adoptive Parents, „The American Journal of Psychiatry” 167 (10): 1240–1246.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2010.09010114

Williams J.B., Gibbon M., First M.B. et al. (1992), The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM- III-R (SCID): II. Multisite Test–Retest Reliability, „Archives of General Psychiatry” 49 (8): 630–636.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1992.01820080038006

Wolfers T., Doan N.T., Kaufmann T. et al. (2018), Mapping the Heterogeneous Phenotype of Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder Using Normative Models, „JAMA Psychiatry” 75 (11): 1146–1155.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2018.2467

Wunderink L., Nieboer R.M., Wiersma D. et al. (2013), Recovery in Remitted First-Episode Psychosis at 7 Years of Follow-Up of an Early Dose Reduction/Discontinuation or Maintenance Treatment Strategy: Long-Term Follow-Up of a 2-Year Randomized Clinical Trial, „JAMA Psychiatry” 70 (9): 913–920.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.19

Yesavage J.A., Fairchild J.K., Mi Z. et al. (2018), Effect of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Treatment-Resistant Major Depression in US Veterans: A Randomized Clinical Trial, „JAMA Psychiatry” 75 (9): 884–893.
View in Google Scholar
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2018.1483